The art of remembrance for reading. An anthology concludes Mischa Kuball’s installation res.o.nant at the Jewish Museum Berlin. A review of the installation and discussion of the publication by Johannes Waßmer.
Books intend to have an effect on their readers. They wish to convey their contents, inspire or be appreciated literarily. This applies in a special way to the most recent book publication of the Jewish Museum Berlin. It gathers around twenty contributions, focuses on art, touches on socio-political and cultural issues, takes up an artistic, scientific or essayistic position and, despite this diversity of perspectives, clearly votes for something: for a vivid remembering. The book is dedicated to an installation by the conceptual artist Mischa Kuball at the Jewish Museum Berlin from November 2017 to early September 2019. Unobtrusively designed, it also offers numerous connection factors: res.o.nant. The book is titled like the installation: “res.o.nant. Mischa Kuball”.
First of all, the volume documents the installation in image and word. In six parts, the installation itself, which opens the volume, and five performances that took place within the framework of the installation are remembered. “Wildwood Flowers” by Reut Shemesh and “#5 Irrlicht” by ACADEMY Stage Art School create connections between installation, museum and theatre: Reut Shemesh puts on masks and initiates a game between identity, age and gender for two dancers who move around the installation and in front of the museum. The young ensemble of the ACADEMY Stage Art School spent four months working intensively with the Jewish Museum and res.o.nant developing and carrying out a theatre performance in this context. During the Gallery Weekend 2019, the musicians of Monika Werkstatt have engaged themselves with the mood of res.o.nant with their electronic improvisations in their performance “Ambient Werkstatt” less theatrically, but tonally. At the Berlin Art Week the year before, Mike Banks placed his “Soundscapes” in the spatial landscapes of the Jewish Museum and the installation. A musical highlight was the performance of free-jazz legend William Parker, who gave a solo concert on bass in the Voids. Mischa Kuball’s “urban intervention” is most recently situated in the urban space of Berlin itself: During Berlin Art Week 2018, Paul Celan’s poem of the same name, “Oranienstraße 1”, was exhibited in Oranienstraße, reminiscent of the Shoah and establishing a connection between the city and the Jewish Museum as well as between history and present.
1: Dokumentation der Performance von Monika Werkstatt im Rahmen von res·o·nant i während der Gallery Weekend Berlin,
April 2019, Foto von Julia Röhr, Archiv Mischa Kuball, VG Bild-Kunst Bonn 2019
In addition to the documented images of res.o.nant and the framing performances, the book focuses on nineteen contributions, discussions with and approaches to res.o.nant. The contributions establish the visual, aural and cultural theoretical, the historical and religious, as well as the artistic resonance spaces of the dialogue that Mischa Kuball initiated with res.o.nant. They reflect on the installation, on museum and urban space, on the Shoah in particular and on memory in general as well as on its media: on architecture, image and sound, on light, space and language. In this way, the resonance spaces of the installation are transformed into book form. This succeeds precisely because there is no attempt to harmonise the different views of the contributors on res.o.nant: It is precisely their polyphony that opens up discussion spaces.
I. Spines of Emptiness and Vibrations of Light
Mischa Kuball is already initiating dialogues, for instance between the location and the installation, which has continued to branch out over the two years of its existence. In the Jewish Museum in Berlin, the city where the Holocaust was conceived, decided upon and organized, commemoration of the Shoah is at the heart of museum construction. In 1989 Daniel Libeskind won the architectural competition for the new Jewish Museum building with a concept that translates the memory of the Shoah into architecture: he integrated three 24-metre-high Voids into the building. They are an integral part of the museum; they stalk into it as concrete spikes and form, bare and empty, openly gaping wounds that cannot be closed. Therefore, it seems only conclusive that the Voids previously delivered with educational materials were prepared again for res.o.nant. This relationship between Libeskind’s Voids and Kuball’s installation and their mutual piercing is thought through by Christoph Asendorf. He focuses on the importance of architecture for Mischa Kuball’s art, his engagement with Daniel Libeskind and Mies van der Rohe, and his connection to the light works of the Zero artists. How does res.o.nant interact with the Voids? Mischa Kuball lets white light glide over the naked concrete, first in the conical shape of the Voids, then up a wall, transform into a spot cone, slide down again, pull the visitors into the light cone and out again, up the wall in the conical shape of the Voids.
The artist repeatedly works with light interventions in public spaces, including the Stommeln Synagogue (“Refraction House”, 1994) and the Katowice tram (“public preposition: Ghosttram”, 2013). Mischa Kuball continues his work with light in the Jewish Museum. The artist has chosen the title programmatically. Its wandering cone of light scans the Voids and follows their course. Resonance, as Hartmut Rosa has recently pointed out, is not merely an echo phenomenon that produces a mechanical reverberation, but “a specific relationship between two bodies capable of vibrating, in which the vibration of one body stimulates the ‘self-activity’ (or self-oscillation) of the other”. (Rosa: Resonanz, 282) Moreover, despite all the echoing seriality and mechanics of the same light paths, the Voids are not simply illuminated as themselves. For, as Karl Heinz Bohrer formulates for the transformation of historical into aesthetic events, lighting withdraws “from a simple illustration or even affirmation” (Bohrer: Das absolute Präsens, 31) of the Voids. That means: In Mischa Kuball’s wandering light the Voids reflect transformed.
2: Mischa Kuball, res.o.nant, Licht- und Klaginstallation im Jüdischen Museum Berlin, 2017-2019, Installationsansicht: Ladislav Zajac 2017, Archiv Mischa Kuball, VG Bild-Kunst Bonn 2019
In the book publication, Kathrin Dreckmann follows the wandering light through the installation and relates it to Peter Sloterdijk’s and Hans Blumenberg’s reflections on light and Emmanuel Levinas’ concept of the subject. In contrast, John C. Welchman focuses on the “dialogue” between the Libeskind architecture and Kuball’s installation, “the relationship between the constitutive sonic, projected and reflected elements of Kuball’s work and Libeskind’s design program”. In subtle sharpness, Welchman shows that res.o.nant corrects Derrida’s criticism of Libeskind’s Voids, neither would they overcome absence nor present a pure emptiness: Kuball shows that the Voids do not make a clear representation, but form in architecture what Derrida himself demands with the term supplement.
res.o.nant, however, creates resonant spaces not only between the Libeskind concrete and Mischa Kuball’s light projections, but foremost between the overall installation and the museum visitor. The installation is accessed via the basement of the museum. Just a few steps away are family items exhibited of Jewish life before and during the Shoah, remains of deceased people and of survivors who remember those who owned and used these items. Next to the Voids, these exhibits are the ‘other side’ of remembrance work. The core of every memory is that it remains alive, that the commemorator is in a relationship to the remembered. “You keep quiet, I was. You speak, I am,” Edmond Jabès lets Reb Moline speak in his “Book of Questions,” dedicated to the possibilities of Jewish existence in the face of the Shoah. (Jabès: The Book of Questions, 25) In silence, memory fades and becomes the past. Silence means oblivion.
Nevertheless, speaking is always only to be thought of as conversation. Memory can therefore be described as a resonance phenomenon. Rosa defines: “Resonance is not a state of feeling, but a moment of relationship.” (Rosa: Resonanz, 288) The dialogue philosopher Martin Buber also thinks of the encounter between two people, the dialogue between I and Thou, as a kind of resonant space. Both beings sound in their own vibration and are stimulated by their counterparts. The encounter then takes place – according to Buber – in the intermediate space, that (non-)place where neither the one nor the other person claims sovereignty, but where both personalities unfold in their distinctiveness and at the same time interact with one another. Only here does one find oneself: “A person only becomes a self through encountering the other.” (Buber: Me and you, 32) In other words: Resonance means ‘answer’, but not overrule or talk. In contrast to the echo, resonance not only describes the reverberation of one’s “own”, the self-reflection, but also hears the “respondent” (Rosa: Resonanz, 286), the voice of the other. This voice of the other is necessary for one to find oneself and one’s identity.
A living memory needs the voice of the other. By using Mischa Kuball’s intervention to force the Voids to give a statement to the visitors, by integrating them into the cone of light and then leaving them behind again, a resonance space is opened up. The visitors are confronted with the Voids and at the same time brought closer to them. This also applies to memory: it is absent and present at the same time, we must relate to it and at the same time not embody it. Héléne Cixous writes to Cécile Wajsbrot in a volume about the roots of both Jewish women in the German language and culture and about the effect of the Shoah on this root system, that the “stumbling blocks” in Germany for them were “cathedrals”: they formed “barriers, boundaries that were set to oblivion” by calling for ever new answers. (Cixous/Wajsbrot: Eine deutsche Autobiographie, 92) Only when memory always reverberates back to us, when it demands and invites – to confront, to pause, to talk – can it remain alive.
In this sense Norman L. Kleeblatt, among others former chief curator of the Jewish Museum New York, understands res.o.nant. He places res.o.nant in the context of other installations and works by Kuball and deals with the immateriality and aesthetics of light and sound through the composition of light. However, he does not draw a theoretical conclusion about art from this, but shows that res.o.nant also answers a central museological question: “Kuball’s evocative installation refracts the inevitable questions of how the Jewish Museum Berlin will balance the intellectual and historical versus the aesthetic and emotive”. Living memory also requires aesthetic resonance. Alina J. Williams, who integrates Kuball’s connection of Voids and light into an art historical context (Moholy-Nagy, Hirschfeld-Mack), comes to a similar conclusion. She shows that Kuball’s intervention thus proposes a mechanism to see and generate a narrative within absence.
Two mirrors guard the two entrances to the intervention. These mirrors, almost two metres high, twist against each other along their central axis and, with increasing twist, cut the viewer into the lower body and upper body. Horst Bredekamp reflects in his contribution “Kuball’s Critique of Mirror Criticism” on the function of the mirror in the work of Mischa Kuball. With reference to his work “Platon’s Mirror” (2011) he judges: “The entire ouevre of Mischa Kuball’s is dedicated to an engagement with Plato’s mirror metaphor”. Not as a takeover of Plato’s criticism of the reflection of the world in art, but as a decoupling of “light as the transmitting medium from its serving function”. The mirrors in res.o.nant no longer reflect reality, but in the eye of the beholder the processality of the different light rhythms of res.o.nant creates aesthetic potentials, which Bredekamp and Baumgarten define as “pregnant perceptions”. Baumgarten understands those to be dark ideas that do not achieve their conciseness through reduction, but through the opening of a dark, unclear space in which several and therefore ‘meaningful ideas’ emerge (cf. Baumgarten: Metapysik, 115).
By constantly twisting the mirror surfaces towards the observer and against each other, they prevent the viewer from echoing the reflection of themself, which runs towards the confirmation of their self-perception. Jacques Lacan has described how the structure of the human ego develops in the mirror image and how only the mirror assembles the “fragmented image of the body” into a complete, rigid subject unit. (Lacan: Das Spiegelstadium als Bilder der Ichfunktion, 67) The mirrors in res.o.nant only allow an unbroken view of oneself in moments and in new angle constellations, which immediately breaks again in the twisting mirror surfaces. This ‘other’ image not only throws the visitor back to themself, but points to something that is also in Libeskind’s Voids: interference. Resonance spaces are disturbance and irritation spaces. If the Voids irritate the visitor because they seem to disturb the functionality and aesthetics of the building, the mirrors confront the viewer with themself, with their own imperfection and fragility.
3: Mischa Kuball, res.o.nant, Licht- und Klaginstallation im Jüdischen Museum Berlin, 2017-2019, Installationsansicht: Ladislav Zajac 2017, Archiv Mischa Kuball, VG Bild-Kunst Bonn 2019
With Emmanuel Lévinas these disturbances can be described as proximity. According to Lévinas, proximity is not settled “in the uninhabited space of Euclidean geometry”, but presupposes “humanity”. (Lévinas: Jenseits des Seins, 182) Only the subject feels closeness, which therefore is “not a state”, “not a rest, but just restlessness, non-place, outside the resting place and thus disturbance for the silence of the non-abundance of the existing” and therefore “always thus remains insufficient[.]”: “like an embrace”. (ibid. , 184) Proximity disturbs the objectivity or objecthood of relationships, demands the ego and undermines it at the same time. It prevents any absolutisation of the ego, which is rather always already put into the responsibility. In this way, the mirror surfaces that twist against each other allow the viewer to experience the closeness of the viewer to themself and confront them with the fragility of their own personality – think of the fate of the physically fracturing concentration camp prisoners. Due to their physical torque, they vibrate into the viewer as resonance phenomena and act as interference signals of an overly smooth self-portrait: Whoever enters res.o.nant is called upon to visualize themself as another.
With reference to the motif of light in the dark Voids, Shelley Harten’s contribution follows the exclamation of the Russian avant-garde artist Aleksei Kruchenykh from 1913: “Sun, we’ll lock you up in a concrete house!” and Kasimir Malevich’s “Black Square” two years later. The combination of space and lighting in res.o.nant evokes Plato’s cave parable: “Kuball metaphorically repeats the situation of Plato’s cave inhabitants moving form darkness to light and back”. Shelley Harten shows that Kuball follows both his work on Plato and his reception of Malevich’s “Black Square” in the performance “Public Square” of 2007 (Hamburg) and 2015 (Thessaloniki). In res.o.nant the relationship between light and dark space confuses “the visitor’s capacity to see and perceive”. In her judgment, Shelley Harten explicitly refers to another part of the installation: between the two irradiated Voids there is a passage space, the center of the installation.
4: Mischa Kuball, res.o.nant, Licht- und Klaginstallation im Jüdischen Museum Berlin, 2017-2019, Installationsansicht: Ladislav Zajac 2017, Archiv Mischa Kuball, VG Bild-Kunst Bonn 2019
Mischa Kuball integrates a new element into this centre: halogen spotlights, a red, at first dangerous, threatening light into the corners of the wall, which is gradually superimposed by a warmer, almost orange glowing red. The visitor strolls through it. Suddenly it flashes stroboesk, the sequence ends and leaves black spots on the retina. One is, if you will, ‘flashed’ like the people in Barry Sonnenfeld’s Men in Black (1997): The effect of the reddish light from the halogen lamps is annihilated. What remains is the irritation of the eyes and the extremely short disbelief about what happened – was the red truly red? – until the halogen launchers start the circle anew. All throughout, the strobe flasher seems to scream silently, remains dangerous at first and then progresses increasingly harmoniously and warmly before it ends in an Anakoluth. This can certainly be understood as a metaphor for the singularity of the Shoah, with which the European history of Jewish life was abruptly interrupted and almost ended. After the anti-Jewish pogroms of the Middle Ages and early modern times, European Jews are gradually experiencing increasing cultural and legal integration and social participation. Then six million Jews are murdered.
Gregor H. Lersch, curator of the Jewish Museum Berlin and co-initiator of res.o.nant, makes an explicit connection to the Shoah. In the artistic dialogue between the Libeskind architecture and Kuball’s installation, he includes Paul Celan, whose poem “Oranienstraße 1” was temporarily displayed at a historical location by the Jewish Museum. It is reminiscent of Mischa Kuball’s artist’s books for the Dutch Kaldewey-Press publishing house, in which he artistically designed Paul Celan’s poems. Gregor Lersch shows that Mischa Kuball follows a common artistic strategy with the Voids of Daniel Libeskind as well as with Paul Celan’s verses: “the conceptual artist restages and perhaps even sets to music the existing artistic work, expanding upon it and adding his own poignant note. Crucially he solicits the participation and the critical engagement of the reader or the public.” Lawrence Weiner also articulates in his work “Brought forth by the Resonance of a Dissonance – Dicht bei” from 2009, which was reprinted on the occasion of the volume, that dissonances and resonances can sound together and respond to each other.
5: Dokumentation der Intervention res·o·nant LIVE in Berlin-Kreuzberg während der Berlin Art Week,
September 2018, Foto von Archiv Mischa Kuball, VG Bild-Kunst Bonn 2019
In res.o.nant, around 200 one-minute music and sound kits, which musicians and bands sent to the Jewish Museum as part of an open call and which loop through the entire installation, are integrated into the multimedia game of discords and answers. Léontine Meijer-van Mensch, programme director of the Jewish Museum from 2017 to 2019 and associated with the entire project from the beginning, reflects on the relationship between personal address and museology when she highlights the socio-political potential of res.o.nant: “I hope that with this innovative participatory art project we contributed to a new definition of the concept of community and new ways to the relationship between communities and museum.” With their short pieces, the musicians react to museum, architecture and installation. Opposite the silent shock of the centre space the sometimes loud, sometimes quiet, pop and punk, singing and synthetic music and sound experiments echo through the spatial depth of the Voids. While res.o.nant works primarily with light, the skits complement the installation with a new space for the senses – which already resonates in the phonetic separation points of the title res.o.nant – and a cultural, artistic resonance space.
Four of the band contributions are dedicated to the sound of memory. In his contribution Diedrich Diederichsen combines minimalist memory architecture, soundskits and their multitude argumentatively and points out three approaches: Memory of the Shoah attempts to take into account the “inadequacy of depiction and pictorial representation”; accordingly, the short pieces of music in the installation do not symbolize “the expressions of a healthy, whole, and living subject”, but are rather “situated in a complete social world and destined for interaction”. Precisely because the pieces of music remain next to each other as skits, skits are “much more persistent: quick and evanescent, but form and determined” compared to dub, for example, who also thematizes the absence of a homeland and the diaspora musically. The image scientist W.J.T. Mitchell complements Diederichsen and thinks theoretically: The metaphor of the mass media is “resonance rather than representation” and therefore opens his eyes to “sound images”, which seems to be an “essential part of what constitutes resonance”, through the interplay of spatial architecture, light and sound of res.o.nant. Daniel Libeskind translates this reflection on the relationship between sound and image into a drawing: “Sonnets in Babylon, The Old Song (Niggun) Sounds like a Jackhammer” from 2019 shows geometric forms, architectural rudiments that do not take on a stable spatial form, but express a sound space in all its restlessness, in the diversity of its frequencies and its subtle pitches. In his photograph “The Power of Vibrations, Frequencies, and Sounds res.o.nant in our Lives”, Joan Atkins, one of the founding fathers of electronic music, expresses the multitude of switching paths and their (technical) changes before the richness of sound unfolds with all its power. This can certainly be traced back to Mischa Kuball’s installation: if the mirrors and the strobe lightning throw the individual back on themselves as remembers, the music powerfully populates the memory, the open call for the Berlin musicians carries the memory out into society and brings it into the museum. And as the sound of a synthesizer measures the space from left to right and bottom to top, a sound chamber of collective memory emerges.
With res.o.nant Mischa Kuball has built an artistic echo sounder. The “pling” of the sonar runs back and forth between the overall installation and the visitors. The plumb line and thus the shape and distance of the plumbed memory space are measured. The “pling”, however, is not sent and received in an echo chamber, but in a resonance chamber. Mischa Kuball’s description, the installation opens up a “resonance between architecture and skin” refers not only to the opposite of cold concrete and warm skin, but also to the sensitivity, the human receptivity to the vibrations of the atmosphere towards the technical echo of a concrete wall. res.o.nant sets both in vibration and invites the visitor to answer the question about their memory of the Shoah.
These resonating spaces in the enormous Voids, however, are only opened up because res.o.nant also and first creates aesthetic experiences. In its rational unavailability, the phenomenon of resonance, as Rosa notes, resembles that of the aesthetic: “[T]he attempt to gain instrumental availability and control over it, or even to accumulate it,” destroys “the resonance experience as such” (Rosa: Resonanz, 295). In his dialogical thinking, Martin Buber translates the experience of resonance or encounter into aesthetic ways of writing (cf. Waßmer: Die Ästhetik der Begegnung). This also applies to Mischa Kuball: res.o.nant stages the present. Martin Seel notes with regard to staging that it “produces and emphasizes the conspicuous presence of something that is happening here and now, and which, because it is present, evades even an almost complete comprehension by anyone”. (Seel: Die Macht des Erscheinens, 72). Seel describes the present as the “state[.] in which the things of the world and of life approach us in different ways”. (ibid., 73) This is exactly what res.o.nant does: The mirrors and strobe flashes, the skits and spotlights and also the Voids of the Libeskind building approach us and ask for answers. In them we don’t merely observe, as we certainly don’t fully grasp. Rather, Mischa Kuball’s intervention draws the viewer as an actor into a resonating space, connects them with the Voids, disturbs and creates resonances. When the view from the distance of the light-filled Voids descends on the proximity of the hereditary objects of the Holocaust victims, the visitor encounters themself and their own memory anew.
Hans Ulrich Reck, who identifies more than a dozen motifs and levels of discourse, devotes himself to the richness of motifs in res.o.nant‘s artistic play with reflections and their media. This multistrandedness of topics and levels of discourse is also demonstrated by two conversations that round off the volume: Mischa Kuball and Alexander Kluge think about the skin as a sensitive resonance medium. Kluge combines the Latin ‘pellicula’ (‘skin’) with the French ‘la pellicule’ (film negative), and shows that skin is always related to sensitivity and refers back to res.o.nant: “And your installation demonstrates that sensitivity very beautifully through the touch of light”. In an interview with Gregor H. Lersch, Richard Sennett reflects on sound in public space, digital potentials and the effects of capitalist urban architecture, ghettoization on the one hand and the unification of international cityscapes on the other. Sennett critically rethinks the relationship between technology, digitization, architecture and capitalism: “It’s a myth, it’s a capitalist myth, that machines will make everything simpler for you, because monopoly capitalism owns the machines that do that simplification.”
This volume is a successful publicistic venture because it manages to transport the diversity of res.o.nant, the installation, into res.o.nant, the book. The large number of contributions from different disciplines from science, art and culture, from schools of thought and styles, shows the thematic richness of the installation, but threatens to go beyond the concept of a thematically closed volume and become an incoherent collection of contributions. It is not always the case, for example, that the contribution and the documentation fit together as perfectly as Gregor H. Lersch’s reflection on Mischa Kuball’s “urban intervention”. Maybe that’s hard to avoid. Nonetheless, the diversity of themes and the views of the authors does not end in a confusion and passing each other by, but in a multi-perspectival circle around the challenges of remembering the Shoah. With such a book Mischa Kuballs finds a worthy conclusion to a both quiet and spectacular installation.
res.o.nant. Mischa Kuball, ed. by Gregor H. Lersch and Léontine Meijer-van Mensch, Berlin: Sternberg Press 2019.
Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten: Metaphysik, übers. von Georg Friedrich Meier, Jena 2004.
Karl Heinz Bohrer: Das absolute Präsenz. Die Semantik ästhetischer Zeit, Frankfurt a.M. 1994.
Martin Buber: Ich und Du, Gütersloh 2009.
Hélène Cixous/Cecile Wajsbrot: Eine deutsche Autobiographie. Aus dem Französischen übersetzt von Esther von der Osten, Wien 2019.
Edmond Jabès: Das Buch der Fragen. Aus dem Französischen von Henriette Beese, Berlin 2019.
Jacques Lacan: Das Spiegelstadium als Bildner der Ichfunktion. Wie sie uns in der psychoanalytischen Erfahrung erscheint, in: Ders.: Schriften I, Berlin 1986, S. 61-70.
Emmanuel Lévinas: Jenseits des Seins oder anders als Sein geschieht. Aus dem Französischen übersetzt von Thomas Wiemer, Freiburg/München 2011.
Martin Seel: Die Macht des Erscheinens, Frankfurt a.M. 2007.
Hartmut Rosa: Resonanz. Eine Soziologie der Weltbeziehung, Frankfurt a.M. 2019.
Johannes Waßmer: Die Ästhetik der Begegnung. Zur Poetik sprachlicher Formen in Ich und Du, in: Ursula Frost/Ders./Hans-Joachim Werner (Hg.): Dialog und Konflikt, Bodenburg 2018, S. 159–180.
Gregor H. Lersch, Léontine Meijer-van Mensch (Eds.) Mischa Kuball: res.o.nant
Contributions by Christoph Asendorf, Juan Atkins, Horst Bredekamp, Diedrich Diederichsen, Kathrin Dreckmann, Shelley Harten, Norman Kleeblatt, Alexander Kluge, Daniel Libeskind, Gregor H. Lersch, Léontine Meijer-van Mensch, W. J. T. Mitchell, Hans Ulrich Reck, Richard Sennett, Peter Weibel, Lawrence Weiner, John C. Welchman, Alena J. Williams
Published by Sternberg Press
Copublished with the Jüdisches Museum Berlin
Design by Double Standards, Stefanie Schwarzwimmer
About the author:
Dr. Johannes Waßmer, born 1983. Studied Modern and Medieval German Literature and Philosophy at Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, Phd in 2017 about phenomenology of acceleration and metaphysics of history in the western front novels of the First World War. Publications i.a. about Martin Buber, Hermann Hesse, Ernst Jünger and as well about the periodicals of modern art and literature. Current works about the aesthetics of waiting, the theory of works and the presence of signs.
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